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Bytecode for the Dalvik VM

Bytecode for the Dalvik VM
Copyright © 2007 The Android Open Source Project

General Design

  • The machine model and calling conventions are meant to approximately imitate common real architectures and C-style calling conventions:
    • The VM is register-based, and frames are fixed in size upon creation. Each frame consists of a particular number of registers (specified by the method) as well as any adjunct data needed to execute the method, such as (but not limited to) the program counter and a reference to the .dex file that contains the method.
    • Registers are 32 bits wide. Adjacent register pairs are used for 64-bit values.
    • In terms of bitwise representation, (Object) null == (int) 0.
    • The N arguments to a method land in the last N registers of the method’s invocation frame, in order. Wide arguments consume two registers. Instance methods are passed a this reference as their first argument.
  • The storage unit in the instruction stream is a 16-bit unsigned quantity. Some bits in some instructions are ignored / must-be-zero.
  • Instructions aren’t gratuitously limited to a particular type. For example, instructions that move 32-bit register values without interpretation don’t have to specify whether they are moving ints or floats.
  • There are separately enumerated and indexed constant pools for references to strings, types, fields, and methods.
  • Bitwise literal data is represented in-line in the instruction stream.
  • Because, in practice, it is uncommon for a method to need more than 16 registers, and because needing more than eight registers is reasonably common, many instructions are limited to only addressing the first 16 registers. When reasonably possible, instructions allow references to up to the first 256 registers. In cases where an instruction variant isn’t available to address a desired register, it is expected that the register contents get moved from the original register to a low register (before the operation) and/or moved from a low result register to a high register (after the operation).
  • There are several “pseudo-instructions” that are used to hold variable-length data referred to by regular instructions (for example, fill-array-data). Such instructions must never be encountered during the normal flow of execution. In addition, the instructions must be located on even-numbered bytecode offsets (that is, 4-byte aligned). In order to meet this requirement, dex generation tools should emit an extra nop instruction as a spacer if such an instruction would otherwise be unaligned. Finally, though not required, it is expected that most tools will choose to emit these instructions at the ends of methods, since otherwise it would likely be the case that additional instructions would be needed to branch around them.
  • When installed on a running system, some instructions may be altered, changing their format, as an install-time static linking optimization. This is to allow for faster execution once linkage is known. See the associated instruction formats document for the suggested variants. The word “suggested” is used advisedly; it is not mandatory to implement these.
  • Human-syntax and mnemonics:
    • Dest-then-source ordering for arguments.
    • Some opcodes have a disambiguating suffix with respect to the type(s) they operate on: Type-general 64-bit opcodes are suffixed with -wide. Type-specific opcodes are suffixed with their type (or a straightforward abbreviation), one of: -boolean -byte -char -short -int -long -float -double -object -string -class -void. Type-general 32-bit opcodes are unmarked.
    • Some opcodes have a disambiguating suffix to distinguish otherwise-identical operations that have different instruction layouts or options. These suffixes are separated from the main names with a slash (“/”) and mainly exist at all to make there be a one-to-one mapping with static constants in the code that generates and interprets executables (that is, to reduce ambiguity for humans).
  • See the instruction formats document for more details about the various instruction formats (listed under “Op & Format”) as well as details about the opcode syntax.

Summary of Instruction Set

Op & Format Mnemonic / Syntax Arguments Description
00 10x nop Waste cycles.
01 12x move vA, vB A: destination register (4 bits)
B: source register (4 bits)
Move the contents of one non-object register to another.
02 22x move/from16 vAA, vBBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: source register (16 bits)
Move the contents of one non-object register to another.
03 32x move/16 vAAAA, vBBBB A: destination register (16 bits)
B: source register (16 bits)
Move the contents of one non-object register to another.
04 12x move-wide vA, vB A: destination register pair (4 bits)
B: source register pair (4 bits)
Move the contents of one register-pair to another.

Note: It is legal to move from vN to either vN-1 or vN+1, so implementations must arrange for both halves of a register pair to be read before anything is written.

05 22x move-wide/from16 vAA, vBBBB A: destination register pair (8 bits)
B: source register pair (16 bits)
Move the contents of one register-pair to another.

Note: Implementation considerations are the same as move-wide, above.

06 32x move-wide/16 vAAAA, vBBBB A: destination register pair (16 bits)
B: source register pair (16 bits)
Move the contents of one register-pair to another.

Note: Implementation considerations are the same as move-wide, above.

07 12x move-object vA, vB A: destination register (4 bits)
B: source register (4 bits)
Move the contents of one object-bearing register to another.
08 22x move-object/from16 vAA, vBBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: source register (16 bits)
Move the contents of one object-bearing register to another.
09 32x move-object/16 vAAAA, vBBBB A: destination register (16 bits)
B: source register (16 bits)
Move the contents of one object-bearing register to another.
0a 11x move-result vAA A: destination register (8 bits) Move the single-word non-object result of the most recent invoke-kind into the indicated register. This must be done as the instruction immediately after aninvoke-kind whose (single-word, non-object) result is not to be ignored; anywhere else is invalid.
0b 11x move-result-wide vAA A: destination register pair (8 bits) Move the double-word result of the most recent invoke-kind into the indicated register pair. This must be done as the instruction immediately after aninvoke-kind whose (double-word) result is not to be ignored; anywhere else is invalid.
0c 11x move-result-object vAA A: destination register (8 bits) Move the object result of the most recent invoke-kind into the indicated register. This must be done as the instruction immediately after an invoke-kindor filled-new-array whose (object) result is not to be ignored; anywhere else is invalid.
0d 11x move-exception vAA A: destination register (8 bits) Save a just-caught exception into the given register. This should be the first instruction of any exception handler whose caught exception is not to be ignored, and this instruction must only ever occur as the first instruction of an exception handler; anywhere else is invalid.
0e 10x return-void Return from a void method.
0f 11x return vAA A: return value register (8 bits) Return from a single-width (32-bit) non-object value-returning method.
10 11x return-wide vAA A: return value register-pair (8 bits) Return from a double-width (64-bit) value-returning method.
11 11x return-object vAA A: return value register (8 bits) Return from an object-returning method.
12 11n const/4 vA, #+B A: destination register (4 bits)
B: signed int (4 bits)
Move the given literal value (sign-extended to 32 bits) into the specified register.
13 21s const/16 vAA, #+BBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: signed int (16 bits)
Move the given literal value (sign-extended to 32 bits) into the specified register.
14 31i const vAA, #+BBBBBBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: arbitrary 32-bit constant
Move the given literal value into the specified register.
15 21h const/high16 vAA, #+BBBB0000 A: destination register (8 bits)
B: signed int (16 bits)
Move the given literal value (right-zero-extended to 32 bits) into the specified register.
16 21s const-wide/16 vAA, #+BBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: signed int (16 bits)
Move the given literal value (sign-extended to 64 bits) into the specified register-pair.
17 31i const-wide/32 vAA, #+BBBBBBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: signed int (32 bits)
Move the given literal value (sign-extended to 64 bits) into the specified register-pair.
18 51l const-wide vAA, #+BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: arbitrary double-width (64-bit) constant
Move the given literal value into the specified register-pair.
19 21h const-wide/high16 vAA, #+BBBB000000000000 A: destination register (8 bits)
B: signed int (16 bits)
Move the given literal value (right-zero-extended to 64 bits) into the specified register-pair.
1a 21c const-string vAA, string@BBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: string index
Move a reference to the string specified by the given index into the specified register.
1b 31c const-string/jumbo vAA, string@BBBBBBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: string index
Move a reference to the string specified by the given index into the specified register.
1c 21c const-class vAA, type@BBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: type index
Move a reference to the class specified by the given index into the specified register. In the case where the indicated type is primitive, this will store a reference to the primitive type’s degenerate class.
1d 11x monitor-enter vAA A: reference-bearing register (8 bits) Acquire the monitor for the indicated object.
1e 11x monitor-exit vAA A: reference-bearing register (8 bits) Release the monitor for the indicated object.

Note: If this instruction needs to throw an exception, it must do so as if the pc has already advanced past the instruction. It may be useful to think of this as the instruction successfully executing (in a sense), and the exception getting thrownafter the instruction but before the next one gets a chance to run. This definition makes it possible for a method to use a monitor cleanup catch-all (e.g., finally) block as the monitor cleanup for that block itself, as a way to handle the arbitrary exceptions that might get thrown due to the historical implementation ofThread.stop(), while still managing to have proper monitor hygiene.

1f 21c check-cast vAA, type@BBBB A: reference-bearing register (8 bits)
B: type index (16 bits)
Throw a ClassCastException if the reference in the given register cannot be cast to the indicated type.

Note: Since A must always be a reference (and not a primitive value), this will necessarily fail at runtime (that is, it will throw an exception) if B refers to a primitive type.

20 22c instance-of vA, vB, type@CCCC A: destination register (4 bits)
B: reference-bearing register (4 bits)
C: type index (16 bits)
Store in the given destination register 1 if the indicated reference is an instance of the given type, or 0 if not.

Note: Since B must always be a reference (and not a primitive value), this will always result in 0 being stored if C refers to a primitive type.

21 12x array-length vA, vB A: destination register (4 bits)
B: array reference-bearing register (4 bits)
Store in the given destination register the length of the indicated array, in entries
22 21c new-instance vAA, type@BBBB A: destination register (8 bits)
B: type index
Construct a new instance of the indicated type, storing a reference to it in the destination. The type must refer to a non-array class.
23 22c new-array vA, vB, type@CCCC A: destination register (8 bits)
B: size register
C: type index
Construct a new array of the indicated type and size. The type must be an array type.
24 35c filled-new-array {vD, vE, vF, vG, vA}, type@CCCC B: array size and argument word count (4 bits)
C: type index (16 bits)
D..G, A: argument registers (4 bits each)
Construct an array of the given type and size, filling it with the supplied contents. The type must be an array type. The array’s contents must be single-word (that is, no arrays of long or double, but reference types are acceptable). The constructed instance is stored as a “result” in the same way that the method invocation instructions store their results, so the constructed instance must be moved to a register with an immediately subsequent move-result-objectinstruction (if it is to be used).
25 3rc filled-new-array/range {vCCCC .. vNNNN}, type@BBBB A: array size and argument word count (8 bits)
B: type index (16 bits)
C: first argument register (16 bits)
N = A + C – 1
Construct an array of the given type and size, filling it with the supplied contents. Clarifications and restrictions are the same as filled-new-array, described above.
26 31t fill-array-data vAA, +BBBBBBBB (with supplemental data as specified below in “fill-array-data Format”) A: array reference (8 bits)
B: signed “branch” offset to table data pseudo-instruction (32 bits)
Fill the given array with the indicated data. The reference must be to an array of primitives, and the data table must match it in type and must contain no more elements than will fit in the array. That is, the array may be larger than the table, and if so, only the initial elements of the array are set, leaving the remainder alone.
27 11x throw vAA A: exception-bearing register (8 bits) Throw the indicated exception.
28 10t goto +AA A: signed branch offset (8 bits) Unconditionally jump to the indicated instruction.

Note: The branch offset must not be 0. (A spin loop may be legally constructed either with goto/32 or by including a nop as a target before the branch.)

29 20t goto/16 +AAAA A: signed branch offset (16 bits) Unconditionally jump to the indicated instruction.

Note: The branch offset must not be 0. (A spin loop may be legally constructed either with goto/32 or by including a nop as a target before the branch.)

2a 30t goto/32 +AAAAAAAA A: signed branch offset (32 bits) Unconditionally jump to the indicated instruction.
2b 31t packed-switch vAA, +BBBBBBBB (with supplemental data as specified below in “packed-switch Format”) A: register to test
B: signed “branch” offset to table data pseudo-instruction (32 bits)
Jump to a new instruction based on the value in the given register, using a table of offsets corresponding to each value in a particular integral range, or fall through to the next instruction if there is no match.
2c 31t sparse-switch vAA, +BBBBBBBB (with supplemental data as specified below in “sparse-switch Format”) A: register to test
B: signed “branch” offset to table data pseudo-instruction (32 bits)
Jump to a new instruction based on the value in the given register, using an ordered table of value-offset pairs, or fall through to the next instruction if there is no match.
2d..31 23x cmpkind vAA, vBB, vCC
2d: cmpl-float (lt bias)
2e: cmpg-float (gt bias)
2f: cmpl-double (lt bias)
30: cmpg-double (gt bias)
31: cmp-long
A: destination register (8 bits)
B: first source register or pair
C: second source register or pair
Perform the indicated floating point or long comparison, storing 0 if the two arguments are equal, 1 if the second argument is larger, or -1 if the first argument is larger. The “bias” listed for the floating point operations indicates how NaNcomparisons are treated: “Gt bias” instructions return 1 for NaN comparisons, and “lt bias” instructions return -1.

For example, to check to see if floating point a < b, then it is advisable to usecmpg-float; a result of -1 indicates that the test was true, and the other values indicate it was false either due to a valid comparison or because one or the other values was NaN.

32..37 22t if-test vA, vB, +CCCC
32: if-eq
33: if-ne
34: if-lt
35: if-ge
36: if-gt
37: if-le
A: first register to test (4 bits)
B: second register to test (4 bits)
C: signed branch offset (16 bits)
Branch to the given destination if the given two registers’ values compare as specified.

Note: The branch offset must not be 0. (A spin loop may be legally constructed either by branching around a backward goto or by including a nop as a target before the branch.)

38..3d 21t if-testz vAA, +BBBB
38: if-eqz
39: if-nez
3a: if-ltz
3b: if-gez
3c: if-gtz
3d: if-lez
A: register to test (8 bits)
B: signed branch offset (16 bits)
Branch to the given destination if the given register’s value compares with 0 as specified.

Note: The branch offset must not be 0. (A spin loop may be legally constructed either by branching around a backward goto or by including a nop as a target before the branch.)

3e..43 10x (unused) (unused)
44..51 23x arrayop vAA, vBB, vCC
44: aget
45: aget-wide
46: aget-object
47: aget-boolean
48: aget-byte
49: aget-char
4a: aget-short
4b: aput
4c: aput-wide
4d: aput-object
4e: aput-boolean
4f: aput-byte
50: aput-char
51: aput-short
A: value register or pair; may be source or dest (8 bits)
B: array register (8 bits)
C: index register (8 bits)
Perform the identified array operation at the identified index of the given array, loading or storing into the value register.
52..5f 22c iinstanceop vA, vB, field@CCCC
52: iget
53: iget-wide
54: iget-object
55: iget-boolean
56: iget-byte
57: iget-char
58: iget-short
59: iput
5a: iput-wide
5b: iput-object
5c: iput-boolean
5d: iput-byte
5e: iput-char
5f: iput-short
A: value register or pair; may be source or dest (4 bits)
B: object register (4 bits)
C: instance field reference index (16 bits)
Perform the identified object instance field operation with the identified field, loading or storing into the value register.

Note: These opcodes are reasonable candidates for static linking, altering the field argument to be a more direct offset.

60..6d 21c sstaticop vAA, field@BBBB
60: sget
61: sget-wide
62: sget-object
63: sget-boolean
64: sget-byte
65: sget-char
66: sget-short
67: sput
68: sput-wide
69: sput-object
6a: sput-boolean
6b: sput-byte
6c: sput-char
6d: sput-short
A: value register or pair; may be source or dest (8 bits)
B: static field reference index (16 bits)
Perform the identified object static field operation with the identified static field, loading or storing into the value register.

Note: These opcodes are reasonable candidates for static linking, altering the field argument to be a more direct offset.

6e..72 35c invoke-kind {vD, vE, vF, vG, vA}, meth@CCCC
6e: invoke-virtual
6f: invoke-super
70: invoke-direct
71: invoke-static
72: invoke-interface
B: argument word count (4 bits)
C: method index (16 bits)
D..G, A: argument registers (4 bits each)
Call the indicated method. The result (if any) may be stored with an appropriatemove-result* variant as the immediately subsequent instruction.

invoke-virtual is used to invoke a normal virtual method (a method that is notstatic or final, and is not a constructor).

invoke-super is used to invoke the closest superclass’s virtual method (as opposed to the one with the same method_id in the calling class).

invoke-direct is used to invoke a non-static direct method (that is, an instance method that is by its nature non-overridable, namely either a privateinstance method or a constructor).

invoke-static is used to invoke a static method (which is always considered a direct method).

invoke-interface is used to invoke an interface method, that is, on an object whose concrete class isn’t known, using a method_id that refers to aninterface.

Note: These opcodes are reasonable candidates for static linking, altering the method argument to be a more direct offset (or pair thereof).

73 10x (unused) (unused)
74..78 3rc invoke-kind/range {vCCCC .. vNNNN}, meth@BBBB
74: invoke-virtual/range
75: invoke-super/range
76: invoke-direct/range
77: invoke-static/range
78: invoke-interface/range
A: argument word count (8 bits)
B: method index (16 bits)
C: first argument register (16 bits)
N = A + C – 1
Call the indicated method. See first invoke-kind description above for details, caveats, and suggestions.
79..7a 10x (unused) (unused)
7b..8f 12x unop vA, vB
7b: neg-int
7c: not-int
7d: neg-long
7e: not-long
7f: neg-float
80: neg-double
81: int-to-long
82: int-to-float
83: int-to-double
84: long-to-int
85: long-to-float
86: long-to-double
87: float-to-int
88: float-to-long
89: float-to-double
8a: double-to-int
8b: double-to-long
8c: double-to-float
8d: int-to-byte
8e: int-to-char
8f: int-to-short
A: destination register or pair (4 bits)
B: source register or pair (4 bits)
Perform the identified unary operation on the source register, storing the result in the destination register.
90..af 23x binop vAA, vBB, vCC
90: add-int
91: sub-int
92: mul-int
93: div-int
94: rem-int
95: and-int
96: or-int
97: xor-int
98: shl-int
99: shr-int
9a: ushr-int
9b: add-long
9c: sub-long
9d: mul-long
9e: div-long
9f: rem-long
a0: and-long
a1: or-long
a2: xor-long
a3: shl-long
a4: shr-long
a5: ushr-long
a6: add-float
a7: sub-float
a8: mul-float
a9: div-float
aa: rem-float
ab: add-double
ac: sub-double
ad: mul-double
ae: div-double
af: rem-double
A: destination register or pair (8 bits)
B: first source register or pair (8 bits)
C: second source register or pair (8 bits)
Perform the identified binary operation on the two source registers, storing the result in the first source register.
b0..cf 12x binop/2addr vA, vB
b0: add-int/2addr
b1: sub-int/2addr
b2: mul-int/2addr
b3: div-int/2addr
b4: rem-int/2addr
b5: and-int/2addr
b6: or-int/2addr
b7: xor-int/2addr
b8: shl-int/2addr
b9: shr-int/2addr
ba: ushr-int/2addr
bb: add-long/2addr
bc: sub-long/2addr
bd: mul-long/2addr
be: div-long/2addr
bf: rem-long/2addr
c0: and-long/2addr
c1: or-long/2addr
c2: xor-long/2addr
c3: shl-long/2addr
c4: shr-long/2addr
c5: ushr-long/2addr
c6: add-float/2addr
c7: sub-float/2addr
c8: mul-float/2addr
c9: div-float/2addr
ca: rem-float/2addr
cb: add-double/2addr
cc: sub-double/2addr
cd: mul-double/2addr
ce: div-double/2addr
cf: rem-double/2addr
A: destination and first source register or pair (4 bits)
B: second source register or pair (4 bits)
Perform the identified binary operation on the two source registers, storing the result in the first source register.
d0..d7 22s binop/lit16 vA, vB, #+CCCC
d0: add-int/lit16
d1: rsub-int (reverse subtract)
d2: mul-int/lit16
d3: div-int/lit16
d4: rem-int/lit16
d5: and-int/lit16
d6: or-int/lit16
d7: xor-int/lit16
A: destination register (4 bits)
B: source register (4 bits)
C: signed int constant (16 bits)
Perform the indicated binary op on the indicated register (first argument) and literal value (second argument), storing the result in the destination register.

Note: rsub-int does not have a suffix since this version is the main opcode of its family. Also, see below for details on its semantics.

d8..e2 22b binop/lit8 vAA, vBB, #+CC
d8: add-int/lit8
d9: rsub-int/lit8
da: mul-int/lit8
db: div-int/lit8
dc: rem-int/lit8
dd: and-int/lit8
de: or-int/lit8
df: xor-int/lit8
e0: shl-int/lit8
e1: shr-int/lit8
e2: ushr-int/lit8
A: destination register (8 bits)
B: source register (8 bits)
C: signed int constant (8 bits)
Perform the indicated binary op on the indicated register (first argument) and literal value (second argument), storing the result in the destination register.

Note: See below for details on the semantics of rsub-int.

e3..ff 10x (unused) (unused)

packed-switch Format

Name Format Description
ident ushort = 0x0100 identifying pseudo-opcode
size ushort number of entries in the table
first_key int first (and lowest) switch case value
targets int[] list of size relative branch targets. The targets are relative to the address of the switch opcode, not of this table.

Note: The total number of code units for an instance of this table is (size * 2) + 4.

sparse-switch Format

Name Format Description
ident ushort = 0x0200 identifying pseudo-opcode
size ushort number of entries in the table
keys int[] list of size key values, sorted low-to-high
targets int[] list of size relative branch targets, each corresponding to the key value at the same index. The targets are relative to the address of the switch opcode, not of this table.

Note: The total number of code units for an instance of this table is (size * 4) + 2.

fill-array-data Format

Name Format Description
ident ushort = 0x0300 identifying pseudo-opcode
element_width ushort number of bytes in each element
size uint number of elements in the table
data ubyte[] data values

Note: The total number of code units for an instance of this table is (size * element_width + 1) / 2 + 4.

Mathematical Operation Details

Note: Floating point operations must follow IEEE 754 rules, using round-to-nearest and gradual underflow, except where stated otherwise.

Opcode C Semantics Notes
neg-int int32 a;
int32 result = -a;
Unary twos-complement.
not-int int32 a;
int32 result = ~a;
Unary ones-complement.
neg-long int64 a;
int64 result = -a;
Unary twos-complement.
not-long int64 a;
int64 result = ~a;
Unary ones-complement.
neg-float float a;
float result = -a;
Floating point negation.
neg-double double a;
double result = -a;
Floating point negation.
int-to-long int32 a;
int64 result = (int64) a;
Sign extension of int32 into int64.
int-to-float int32 a;
float result = (float) a;
Conversion of int32 to float, using round-to-nearest. This loses precision for some values.
int-to-double int32 a;
double result = (double) a;
Conversion of int32 to double.
long-to-int int64 a;
int32 result = (int32) a;
Truncation of int64 into int32.
long-to-float int64 a;
float result = (float) a;
Conversion of int64 to float, using round-to-nearest. This loses precision for some values.
long-to-double int64 a;
double result = (double) a;
Conversion of int64 to double, using round-to-nearest. This loses precision for some values.
float-to-int float a;
int32 result = (int32) a;
Conversion of float to int32, using round-toward-zero. NaN and -0.0 (negative zero) convert to the integer 0. Infinities and values with too large a magnitude to be represented get converted to either 0x7fffffff or -0x80000000 depending on sign.
float-to-long float a;
int64 result = (int64) a;
Conversion of float to int64, using round-toward-zero. The same special case rules as for float-to-int apply here, except that out-of-range values get converted to either 0x7fffffffffffffff or -0x8000000000000000 depending on sign.
float-to-double float a;
double result = (double) a;
Conversion of float to double, preserving the value exactly.
double-to-int double a;
int32 result = (int32) a;
Conversion of double to int32, using round-toward-zero. The same special case rules as for float-to-int apply here.
double-to-long double a;
int64 result = (int64) a;
Conversion of double to int64, using round-toward-zero. The same special case rules as for float-to-long apply here.
double-to-float double a;
float result = (float) a;
Conversion of double to float, using round-to-nearest. This loses precision for some values.
int-to-byte int32 a;
int32 result = (a << 24) >> 24;
Truncation of int32 to int8, sign extending the result.
int-to-char int32 a;
int32 result = a & 0xffff;
Truncation of int32 to uint16, without sign extension.
int-to-short int32 a;
int32 result = (a << 16) >> 16;
Truncation of int32 to int16, sign extending the result.
add-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a + b;
Twos-complement addition.
sub-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a – b;
Twos-complement subtraction.
rsub-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = b – a;
Twos-complement reverse subtraction.
mul-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a * b;
Twos-complement multiplication.
div-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a / b;
Twos-complement division, rounded towards zero (that is, truncated to integer). This throws ArithmeticException if b == 0.
rem-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a % b;
Twos-complement remainder after division. The sign of the result is the same as that of a, and it is more precisely defined as result == a – (a / b) * b. This throws ArithmeticException if b == 0.
and-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a & b;
Bitwise AND.
or-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a | b;
Bitwise OR.
xor-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a ^ b;
Bitwise XOR.
shl-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a << (b & 0x1f);
Bitwise shift left (with masked argument).
shr-int int32 a, b;
int32 result = a >> (b & 0x1f);
Bitwise signed shift right (with masked argument).
ushr-int uint32 a, b;
int32 result = a >> (b & 0x1f);
Bitwise unsigned shift right (with masked argument).
add-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a + b;
Twos-complement addition.
sub-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a – b;
Twos-complement subtraction.
mul-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a * b;
Twos-complement multiplication.
div-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a / b;
Twos-complement division, rounded towards zero (that is, truncated to integer). This throws ArithmeticException if b == 0.
rem-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a % b;
Twos-complement remainder after division. The sign of the result is the same as that of a, and it is more precisely defined as result == a – (a / b) * b. This throws ArithmeticException if b == 0.
and-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a & b;
Bitwise AND.
or-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a | b;
Bitwise OR.
xor-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a ^ b;
Bitwise XOR.
shl-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a << (b & 0x3f);
Bitwise shift left (with masked argument).
shr-long int64 a, b;
int64 result = a >> (b & 0x3f);
Bitwise signed shift right (with masked argument).
ushr-long uint64 a, b;
int64 result = a >> (b & 0x3f);
Bitwise unsigned shift right (with masked argument).
add-float float a, b;
float result = a + b;
Floating point addition.
sub-float float a, b;
float result = a – b;
Floating point subtraction.
mul-float float a, b;
float result = a * b;
Floating point multiplication.
div-float float a, b;
float result = a / b;
Floating point division.
rem-float float a, b;
float result = a % b;
Floating point remainder after division. This function is different than IEEE 754 remainder and is defined as result == a – roundTowardZero(a / b) * b.
add-double double a, b;
double result = a + b;
Floating point addition.
sub-double double a, b;
double result = a – b;
Floating point subtraction.
mul-double double a, b;
double result = a * b;
Floating point multiplication.
div-double double a, b;
double result = a / b;
Floating point division.
rem-double double a, b;
double result = a % b;
Floating point remainder after division. This function is different than IEEE 754 remainder and is defined as result == a – roundTowardZero(a / b) * b.

Dalvik opcodes
http://pallergabor.uw.hu/androidblog/dalvik_opcodes.html

Dalvik opcodes

Author: Gabor Paller

Vx values in the table denote a Dalvik register. Depending on the instruction, 16, 256 or 64k registers can be accessed. Operations on long and double values use two registers, e.g. a double value addressed in the V0 register occupies the V0 and V1 registers.

Boolean values are stored as 1 for true and 0 for false. Operations on booleans are translated into integer operations.

All the examples are in hig-endian format, e.g. 0F00 0A00 is coded as 0F, 00, 0A, 00 sequence.

Note there are no explanation/example at some instructions. This means that I have not seen that instruction “in the wild” and its presence/name is only known from Android opcode constant list.

Opcode (hex) Opcode name Explanation Example
00 nop No operation 0000 – nop
01 move vx,vy Moves the content of vy into vx. Both registers must be in the first 256 register range. 0110 – move v0, v1
Moves v1 into v0.
02 move/from16 vx,vy Moves the content of vy into vx. vy may be in the 64k register range while vx is one of the first 256 registers. 0200 1900 – move/from16 v0, v25
Moves v25 into v0.
03 move/16
04 move-wide
05 move-wide/from16 vx,vy Moves a long/double value from vy to vx. vy may be in the 64k register range while wx is one of the first 256 registers. 0516 0000 – move-wide/from16 v22, v0
Moves v0 into v22.
06 move-wide/16
07 move-object vx,vy Moves the object reference from vy to vx. 0781 – move-object v1, v8
Moves the object reference in v8 to v1.
08 move-object/from16 vx,vy Moves the object reference from vy to vx, vy can address 64k registers and vx can address 256 registers. 0801 1500 – move-object/from16 v1, v21
Move the object reference in v21 to v1.
09 move-object/16
0A move-result vx Move the result value of the previous method invocation into vx. 0A00 – move-result v0
Move the return value of a previous method invocation into v0.
0B move-result-wide vx Move the long/double result value of the previous method invocation into vx,vx+1. 0B02 – move-result-wide v2
Move the long/double result value of the previous method invocation into v2,v3.
0C move-result-object vx Move the result object reference of the previous method invocation into vx. 0C00 – move-result-object v0
0D move-exception vx Move the exception object reference thrown during a method invocation into vx. 0D19 – move-exception v25
0E return-void Return without a return value 0E00 – return-void
0F return vx Return with vx return value 0F00 – return v0
Returns with return value in v0.
10 return-wide vx Return with double/long result in vx,vx+1. 1000 – return-wide v0
Returns with a double/long value in v0,v1.
11 return-object vx Return with vx object reference value. 1100 – return-object v0
Returns with object reference value in v0
12 const/4 vx,lit4 Puts the 4 bit constant into vx 1221 – const/4 v1, #int2
Moves literal 2 into v1. The destination register is in the lower 4 bit in the second byte, the literal 2 is in the higher 4 bit.
13 const/16 vx,lit16 Puts the 16 bit constant into vx 1300 0A00 – const/16 v0, #int 10
Puts the literal constant of 10 into v0.
14 const vx, lit32 Puts the integer constant into vx 1400 4E61 BC00 – const v0, #            12345678       // #00BC614E
Moves literal             12345678       into v0.
15 const/high16 v0, lit16 Puts the 16 bit constant into the topmost bits of the register. Used to initialize float values. 1500 2041       – const/high16 v0, #float 10.0 // #41200000
Moves the floating literal of 10.0 into v0. The 16 bit literal in the instruction carries the top 16 bits of the floating point number.
16 const-wide/16 vx, lit16 Puts the integer constant into vx and vx+1 registers, expanding the integer constant into a long constant.. 1600 0A00 – const-wide/16 v0, #long 10
Moves literal 10 into v0 and v1 registers.
17 const-wide/32 vx, lit32 Puts the 32 bit constant into vx and vx+1 registers, expanding the integer constant into a long constant. 1702 4e61 bc00 – const-wide/32 v2, #long             12345678       // #00bc614e
Puts #            12345678       into v2 and v3 registers.
18 const-wide vx, lit64 Puts the 64 bit constant into vx and vx+1 registers. 1802 874b 6b5d 54dc 2b00- const-wide v2, #long 12345678901234567 // #002bdc545d6b4b87
Puts #12345678901234567 into v2 and v3 registers.
19 const-wide/high16 vx,lit16 Puts the 16 bit constant into the highest 16 bit of vx and vx+1 registers. Used to initialize double values. 1900 2440       – const-wide/high16 v0, #double 10.0 // #402400000
Puts the double constant of 10.0 into v0 register.
1A const-string vx,string_id Puts reference to a string constant identified by string_id into vx. 1A08 0000 – const-string v8, “” // string@0000
Puts reference to string@0000 (entry #0 in the string table) into v8.
1B const-string-jumbo
1C const-class vx,type_id Moves the class object of a class identified by type_id (e.g. Object.class) into vx. 1C00 0100 – const-class v0, Test3 // type@0001
Moves reference to Test3.class (entry#1 in the type id table) into
1D monitor-enter vx Obtains the monitor of the object referenced by vx. 1D03 – monitor-enter v3
Obtains the monitor of the object referenced by v3.
1E monitor-exit Releases the monitor of the object referenced by vx. 1E03 – monitor-exit v3
Releases the monitor of the object referenced by v3.
1F check-cast vx, type_id Checks whether the object reference in vx can be cast to an instance of a class referenced by type_id. Throws ClassCastException if the cast is not possible, continues execution otherwise. 1F04 0100 – check-cast v4, Test3 // type@0001
Checks whether the object reference in v4 can be cast to type@0001 (entry #1 in the type id table)
20 instance-of vx,vy,type_id Checks whether vy is instance of a class identified by type_id. Sets vx non-zero if it is, 0 otherwise. 2040 0100 – instance-of v0, v4, Test3 // type@0001
Checks whether the object reference in v4 is an instance of type@0001 (entry #1 in the type id table). Sets v0 to non-zero if v4 is instance of Test3, 0 otherwise.
21 array-length vx,vy Calculates the number of elements of the array referenced by vy and puts the length value into vx. 2111 – array-length v1, v1
Calculates the number of elements of the array referenced by v1 and puts the result into v1.
22 new-instance vx,type Instantiates an object type and puts the reference of the newly created instance into vx. 2200 1500       – new-instance v0, java.io.FileInputStream // type@0015
Instantiates type@0015 (entry #15H in the type table) and puts its reference into v0.
23 new-array vx,vy,type_id Generates a new array of type_id type and vy element size and puts the reference to the array into vx. 2312 2500       – new-array v2, v1, char[] // type@0025
Generates a new array of type@0025 type and v1 size and puts the reference to the new array into v2.
24 filled-new-array {parameters},type_id Generates a new array of type_id and fills it with the parameters5. Reference to the newly generated array can be obtained by a move-result-object instruction, immediately following the filled-new-array instruction. 2420 530D 0000 – filled-new-array {v0,v0},[I // type@0D53
Generates a new array of type@0D53. The array’s size will be 2 and both elements will be filled with the contents of v0 register.
25 filled-new-array-range {vx..vy},type_id Generates a new array of type_id and fills it with a range of parameters. Reference to the newly generated array can be obtained by a move-result-object instruction, immediately following the filled-new-array instruction. 2503 0600 1300 – filled-new-array/range {v19..v21}, [B // type@0006
Generates a new array of type@0D53. The array’s size will be 3 and the elements will be filled using the v19,v20 and v21 registers4.
26 fill-array-data vx,array_data_offset Fills the array referenced by vx with the static data. The location of the static data is the sum of  the position of the current instruction and the offset 2606 2500 0000 – fill-array-data v6, 00e6 // +0025
Fills the array referenced by v0 with the static data at current instruction+25H words location. The offset is expressed as a 32-bit number. The static data is stored in the following format:
0003 // Table type: static array data
0400 // Byte per array element (in this case, 4 byte integers)
0300 0000 // Number of elements in the table
0100 0000  // Element #0: integer 1
0200 0000 // Element #1: integer 2
0300 0000 // Element #2: integer3
27 throw vx Throws an exception object. The reference of the exception object is in vx. 2700 – throw v0
Throws an exception. The exception object reference is in v0.
28 goto target Unconditional jump by short offset2. 28F0 – goto 0005 // -0010
Jumps to current position-16 words (hex 10). 0005 is the label of the target instruction.
29 goto/16 target Unconditional jump by 16 bit offset2. 2900 0FFE – goto/16 002f // -01f1
Jumps to the current position-1F1H words. 002F is the label of the target instruction.
2A goto/32 target
2B packed-switch vx,table Implements a switch statement where the case constants are close to each other. The instruction uses an index table. vx indexes into this table to find the offset of the instruction for a particular case. If vx falls out of the index table, the execution continues on the next instruction (default case). 2B02 0C00 0000 – packed-switch v2, 000c // +000c
Execute a packed switch according to the switch argument in v2. The position of the index table is at current instruction+0CH words. The table looks like the following:
0001 // Table type: packed switch table
0300 // number of elements
0000 0000 // element base
0500 0000  0: 00000005 // case 0: +00000005
0700 0000  1: 00000007 // case 1: +00000007
0900 0000  2: 00000009 // case 2: +00000009
2C sparse-switch vx,table Implements a switch statement with sparse case table. The instruction uses a lookup table with case constants and offsets for each case constant. If there is no match in the table, execution continues on the next instruction (default case). 2C02 0c00 0000 – sparse-switch v2, 000c // +000c
Execute a sparse switch according to the switch argument in v2. The position of the lookup table is at current instruction+0CH words. The table looks like the following.
0002 // Table type: sparse switch table
0300 // number of elements
9cff ffff // first case: -100
fa00 0000 // second case constant: 250
e803 0000 // third case constant: 1000
0500 0000 // offset for the first case constant: +5
0700 0000 // offset for the second case constant: +7
0900 0000 // offset for the third case constant: +9
2D cmpl-float Compares the float values in vy and vz and sets the integer value in vx accordingly3 2D00 0607 – cmpl-float v0, v6, v7
Compares the float values in v6 and v7 then sets v0 accordingly. NaN bias is less-than, the instruction will return -1 if any of the parameters is NaN.
2E cmpg-float vx, vy, vz Compares the float values in vy and vz and sets the integer value in vx accordingly3. 2E00 0607 – cmpg-float v0, v6, v7
Compares the float values in v6 and v7 then sets v0 accordingly. NaN bias is greater-than, the instruction will return 1 if any of the parameters is NaN.
2F cmpl-double vx,vy,vz Compares the double values in vy and vz2 and sets the integer value in vx accordingly3. 2F19 0608 – cmpl-double v25, v6, v8
Compares the double values in v6,v7 and v8,v9 and sets v25 accordingly. NaN bias is less-than, the instruction will return -1 if any of the parameters is NaN.
30 cmpg-double vx, vy, vz Compares the double values in vy and vz2 and sets the integer value in vx accordingly3. 3000 080A – cmpg-double v0, v8, v10
Compares the double values in v8,v9 and v10,v11 then sets v0 accordingly. NaN bias is greater-than, the instruction will return 1 if any of the parameters is NaN.
31 cmp-long vx, vy, vz Compares the long values in vy and vz and sets the integer value in vx accordingly3. 3100 0204 – cmp-long v0, v2, v4
Compares the long values in v2 and v4 then sets v0 accordingly.
32 if-eq vx,vy,target Jumps to target if vx==vy2. vx and vy are integer values. 32b3 6600 – if-eq v3, v11, 0080 // +0066
Jumps to the current position+66H words if v3==v11. 0080 is the label of the target instruction.
33 if-ne vx,vy,target Jumps to target if vx!=vy2. vx and vy are integer values. 33A3 1000 – if-ne v3, v10, 002c // +0010
Jumps to the current position+10H words if v3!=v10. 002c is the label of the target instruction.
34 if-lt vx,vy,target Jumps to target is vx<vy2. vx and vy are integer values. 3432 CBFF – if-lt v2, v3, 0023 // -0035
Jumps to the current position-35H words if v2<v3. 0023 is the label of the target instruction.
35 if-ge vx, vy,target Jumps to target if vx>=vy2. vx and vy are integer values. 3510 1B00 – if-ge v0, v1, 002b // +001b
Jumps to the current position+1BH words if v0>=v1. 002b is the label of the target instruction.
36 if-gt vx,vy,target Jumps to target if vx>vy2. vx and vy are integer values. 3610 1B00 – if-ge v0, v1, 002b // +001b
Jumps to the current position+1BH words if v0>v1. 002b is the label of the target instruction.
37 if-le vx,vy,target Jumps to target if vx<=vy2. vx and vy are integer values. 3756 0B00 – if-le v6, v5, 0144 // +000b
Jumps to the current position+0BH words if v6<=v5. 0144 is the label of the target instruction.
38 if-eqz vx,target Jumps to target if vx==02. vx is an integer value. 3802 1900 – if-eqz v2, 0038 // +0019
Jumps to the current position+19H words if v2==0. 0038 is the label of the target instruction.
39 if-nez vx,target Checks vx and jumps if vx is nonzero2. 3902 1200 – if-nez v2, 0014 // +0012
Jumps to current position+18 words (hex 12) if v2 is nonzero. 0014 is the label of the target instruction.
3A if-ltz vx,target Checks vx and jumps if vx<02. 3A00 1600 – if-ltz v0, 002d // +0016
Jumps to the current position+16H words if v0<0. 002d is the label of the target instruction.
3B if-gez vx,target Checks vx and jumps if vx>=02. 3B00 1600 – if-gez v0, 002d // +0016
Jumps to the current position+16H words if v0 >=0. 002d is the label of the target instruction.
3C if-gtz vx,target Checks vx and jumps if vx>02. 3C00 1D00 – if-gtz v0, 004a // +001d
Jumps to the current position+1DH words if v0>0. 004A is the label of the target instruction.
3D if-lez vx,target Checks vx and jumps if vx<=02. 3D00 1D00 – if-lez v0, 004a // +001d
Jumps to the current position+1DH words if v0<=0. 004A is the label of the target instruction.
3E unused_3E
3F unused_3F
40 unused_40
41 unused_41
42 unused_42
43 unused_43
44 aget vx,vy,vz Gets an integer value of an object reference array into vx. The array is referenced by vy and is indexed by vz. 4407 0306       – aget v7, v3, v6
Gets an integer array element. The array is referenced by v3 and the element is indexed by v6. The element will be put into v7.
45 aget-wide vx,vy,vz Gets a long/double value of long/double array into vx,vx+1. The array is referenced by vy and is indexed by vz. 4505 0104       – aget-wide v5, v1, v4
Gets a long/double array element. The array is referenced by v1 and the element is indexed by v4. The element will be put into v5,v6.
46 aget-object vx,vy,vz Gets an object reference value of an object reference array into vx. The array is referenced by vy and is indexed by vz. 4602 0200       – aget-object v2, v2, v0
Gets an object reference array element. The array is referenced by v2 and the element is indexed by v0. The element will be put into v2.
47 aget-boolean vx,vy,vz Gets a boolean value of a boolean array into vx. The array is referenced by vy and is indexed by vz. 4700 0001       – aget-boolean v0, v0, v1
Gets a boolean array element. The array is referenced by v0 and the element is indexed by v1. The element will be put into v0.
48 aget-byte vx,vy,vz Gets a byte value of a byte array into vx. The array is referenced by vy and is indexed by vz. 4800 0001       – aget-byte v0, v0, v1
Gets a byte array element. The array is referenced by v0 and the element is indexed by v1. The element will be put into v0.
49 aget-char vx, vy,vz Gets a char value  of a character array into vx. The element is indexed by vz, the array object is referenced by vy 4905 0003       – aget-char v5, v0, v3
Gets a character array element. The array is referenced by v0 and the element is indexed by v3. The element will be put into v5.
4A aget-short vx,vy,vz Gets a short value  of a short array into vx. The element is indexed by vz, the array object is referenced by vy. 4A00 0001 – aget-short v0, v0, v1
Gets a short array element. The array is referenced by v0 and the element is indexed by v1. The element will be put into v0.
4B aput vx,vy,vz Puts the integer value in vx into an element of an integer array. The element is indexed by vz, the array object is referenced by vy. 4B00 0305 – aput v0, v3, v5
Puts the integer value in v2 into an integer array referenced by v0. The target array element is indexed by v1.
4C aput-wide vx,vy,vz Puts the double/long value in vx,vx+1 into a double/long array. The array is referenced by vy, the element is indexed by vz. 4C05 0104 – aput-wide v5, v1, v4
Puts the double/long value in v5,v6 into a double/long array referenced by v1. The target array element is indexed by v4.
4D aput-object vx,vy,vz Puts the object reference value in vx into an element of an object reference array. The element is indexed by vz, the array object is referenced by vy. 4D02 0100 – aput-object v2, v1, v0
Puts the object reference value in v2 into an object reference array referenced by v0. The target array element is indexed by v1.
4E aput-boolean vx,vy,vz Puts the boolean value in vx into an element of a boolean array. The element is indexed by vz, the array object is referenced by vy. 4E01 0002 – aput-boolean v1, v0, v2
Puts the boolean value in v1 into an object reference array referenced by v0. The target array element is indexed by v2.
4F aput-byte vx,vy,vz Puts the byte value in vx into an element of a byte array. The element is indexed by vz, the array object is referenced by vy. 4F02 0001 – aput-byte v2, v0, v1
Puts the boolean value in v2 into a byte array referenced by v0. The target array element is indexed by v1.
50 aput-char vx,vy,vz Puts the char value in vx into an element of a character array. The element is indexed by vz, the array object is referenced by vy. 5003 0001 – aput-char v3, v0, v1
Puts the character value in v3 into a character array referenced by v0. The target array element is indexed by v1.
51 aput-short vx,vy,vz Puts the short value in vx into an element of a short array. The element is indexed by vz, the array object is referenced by vy. 5102 0001       – aput-short v2, v0, v1
Puts the short value in v2 into a character array referenced by v0. The target array element is indexed by v1.
52 iget vx, vy, field_id Reads an instance field into vx. The instance is referenced by vy. 5210 0300       – iget v0, v1, Test2.i6:I // field@0003
Reads field@0003 into v0 (entry #3 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v1.
53 iget-wide vx,vy,field_id Reads an instance field into vx1. The instance is referenced by vy. 5320 0400       – iget-wide v0, v2, Test2.l0:J // field@0004
Reads field@0004 into v0 and v1 registers (entry #4 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v2.
54 iget-object vx,vy,field_id Reads an object reference instance field into vx. The instance is referenced by vy. iget-object v1, v2, LineReader.fis:Ljava/io/FileInputStream; // field@0002
Reads field@0002 into v1  (entry #2 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v2.
55 iget-boolean vx,vy,field_id Reads a boolean instance field into vx. The instance is referenced by vy. 55FC 0000 – iget-boolean v12, v15, Test2.b0:Z // field@0000
Reads the boolean field@0000 into v12 register (entry #0 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v15.
56 iget-byte vx,vy,field_id Reads a byte instance field into vx. The instance is referenced by vy. 5632 0100       – iget-byte v2, v3, Test3.bi1:B // field@0001
Reads the char field@0001 into v2 register (entry #1 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v3.
57 iget-char vx,vy,field_id Reads a char instance field into vx. The instance is referenced by vy. 5720 0300       – iget-char v0, v2, Test3.ci1:C // field@0003
Reads the char field@0003 into v0 register (entry #3 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v2.
58 iget-short vx,vy,field_id Reads a short instance field into vx. The instance is referenced by vy. 5830 0800 – iget-short v0, v3, Test3.si1:S // field@0008
Reads the short field@0008 into v0 register (entry #8 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v3.
59 iput vx,vy, field_id Puts vx into an instance field. The instance is referenced by vy. 5920 0200       – iput v0,v2, Test2.i6:I // field@0002
Stores v0 into field@0002 (entry #2 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v2.
5A iput-wide vx,vy, field_id Puts the wide value located in vx and vx+1 registers into an instance field. The instance is referenced by vy. 5A20 0000 – iput-wide v0,v2, Test2.d0:D // field@0000
Stores the wide value in v0, v1 registers into field@0000 (entry #0 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v2.
5B iput-object vx,vy,field_id Puts the object reference in vx into an instance field. The instance is referenced by vy. 5B20 0000 – iput-object v0, v2, LineReader.bis:Ljava/io/BufferedInputStream; // field@0000
Stores the object reference in v0 into field@0000 (entry #0 in the field table). The instance is referenced by v2.
5C iput-boolean vx,vy, field_id Puts the boolean value located in vx into an instance field. The instance is referenced by vy. 5C30 0000 – iput-boolean v0, v3, Test2.b0:Z // field@0000
Puts the boolean value in v0 into field@0000 (entry #0 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v3.
5D iput-byte vx,vy,field_id Puts the byte value located in vx into an instance field. The instance is referenced by vy. 5D20 0100 – iput-byte v0, v2, Test3.bi1:B // field@0001
Puts the boolean value in v0 into field@0001 (entry #1 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v2.
5E iput-char vx,vy,field_id Puts the char value located in vx into an instance field. The instance is referenced by vy. 5E20 0300 – iput-char v0, v2, Test3.ci1:C // field@0003
Puts the char value in v0 into field@0003 (entry #3 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v2.
5F iput-short vx,vy,field_id Puts the short value located in vx into an instance field. The instance is referenced by vy. 5F21 0800 – iput-short v1, v2, Test3.si1:S // field@0008
Puts the short value in v1 into field@0008 (entry #8 in the field id table). The instance is referenced by v2.
60 sget vx,field_id Reads the integer field identified by the field_id into vx. 6000 0700 – sget v0, Test3.is1:I // field@0007
Reads field@0007 (entry #7 in the field id table) into v0.
61 sget-wide vx, field_id Reads the static field identified by the field_id into vx and vx+1 registers. 6100 0500 – sget-wide v0, Test2.l1:J // field@0005
Reads field@0005 (entry #5 in the field id table) into v0 and v1 registers.
62 sget-object vx,field_id Reads the object reference field identified by the field_id into vx. 6201 0C00 – sget-object v1, Test3.os1:Ljava/lang/Object; // field@000c
Reads field@000c (entry #CH in the field id table) into v1.
63 sget-boolean vx,field_id Reads the boolean static field identified by the field_id into vx. 6300 0C00 – sget-boolean v0, Test2.sb:Z // field@000c
Reads boolean field@000c (entry #12 in the field id table) into v0.
64 sget-byte vx,field_id Reads the byte static field identified by the field_id into vx. 6400 0200 – sget-byte v0, Test3.bs1:B // field@0002
Reads byte field@0002 (entry #2 in the field id table) into v0.
65 sget-char vx,field_id Reads the char static field identified by the field_id into vx. 6500 0700 – sget-char v0, Test3.cs1:C // field@0007
Reads byte field@0007 (entry #7 in the field id table) into v0.
66 sget-short vx,field_id Reads the short static field identified by the field_id into vx. 6600 0B00 – sget-short v0, Test3.ss1:S // field@000b
Reads short field@000b (entry #BH in the field id table) into v0.
67 sput vx, field_id Puts vx into a static field. 6700 0100 – sput v0, Test2.i5:I // field@0001
Stores v0 into field@0001 (entry #1 in the field id table).
68 sput-wide vx, field_id Puts vx and vx+1 into a static field. 6800 0500       – sput-wide v0, Test2.l1:J // field@0005
Puts the long value in v0 and v1 into the field@0005 static field (entry #5 in the field id table).
69 sput-object vx,field_id Puts object reference in vx into a static field. 6900 0c00 – sput-object v0, Test3.os1:Ljava/lang/Object; // field@000c
Puts the object reference value in v0 into the field@000c static field (entry #CH in the field id table).
6A sput-boolean vx,field_id Puts boolean value in vx into a static field. 6A00 0300 – sput-boolean v0, Test3.bls1:Z // field@0003
Puts the byte value in v0 into the field@0003 static field (entry #3 in the field id table).
6B sput-byte vx,field_id Puts byte value in vx into a static field. 6B00 0200 – sput-byte v0, Test3.bs1:B // field@0002
Puts the byte value in v0 into the field@0002 static field (entry #2 in the field id table).
6C sput-char vx,field_id Puts char value in vx into a static field. 6C01 0700 – sput-char v1, Test3.cs1:C // field@0007
Puts the char value in v1 into the field@0007 static field (entry #7 in the field id table).
6D sput-short vx,field_id Puts short value in vx into a static field. 6D00 0B00 – sput-short v0, Test3.ss1:S // field@000b
Puts the short value in v0 into the field@000b static field (entry #BH in the field id table).
6E invoke-virtual { parameters }, methodtocall Invokes a virtual method with parameters. 6E53 0600 0421 – invoke-virtual { v4, v0, v1, v2, v3}, Test2.method5:(IIII)V // method@0006
Invokes the 6th method in the method table with the following arguments: v4 is the “this” instance, v0, v1, v2, and v3 are the method parameters. The method has 5 arguments (4 MSB bits of the second byte)5.
6F invoke-super {parameter},methodtocall Invokes the virtual method of the immediate parent class. 6F10 A601 0100 invoke-super {v1},java.io.FilterOutputStream.close:()V // method@01a6
Invokes method@01a6 with one parameter, v1.
70 invoke-direct { parameters }, methodtocall Invokes a method with parameters without the virtual method resolution. 7010 0800 0100 – invoke-direct {v1}, java.lang.Object.<init>:()V // method@0008
Invokes the 8th method in the method table with just one parameter, v1 is the “this” instance5.
71 invoke-static {parameters}, methodtocall Invokes a static method with parameters. 7110 3400 0400 – invoke-static {v4}, java.lang.Integer.parseInt:( Ljava/lang/String;)I // method@0034
Invokes method@34 static method. The method is called with one parameter, v45.
72 invoke-interface {parameters},methodtocall Invokes an interface method. 7240 2102 3154 invoke-interface {v1, v3, v4, v5}, mwfw.IReceivingProtocolAdapter.receivePackage:(
ILjava/lang/String;Ljava/io/InputStream;)Z // method@0221
Invokes method@221 interface method using parameters in v1,v3,v4 and v55.
73 unused_73
74 invoke-virtual/range {vx..vy},methodtocall Invokes virtual method with a range of registers. The instruction specifies the first register and the number of registers to be passed to the method. 7403 0600 1300 – invoke-virtual {v19..v21}, Test2.method5:(IIII)V // method@0006
Invokes the 6th method in the method table with the following arguments: v19 is the “this” instance, v20 and v21 are the method parameters.
75 invoke-super/range Invokes  the virtual method of the immediate parent class. The instruction specifies the first register and the number of registers to be passed to the method. 7501 A601 0100 invoke-super {v1},java.io.FilterOutputStream.close:()V // method@01a6
Invokes method@01a6 with one parameter, v1.
76 invoke-direct/range {vx..vy},methodtocall Invokes direct method with a range of registers. The instruction specifies the first register and the number of registers to be passed to the method. 7603 3A00 1300 – invoke-direct/range {v19..21},java.lang.Object.<init>:()V // method@003a
Invokes method@3A with 1 parameters (second byte of the instruction=03). The parameter is stored in v19 (5th,6th bytes of the instruction).
77 invoke-static/range {vx..vy},methodtocall Invokes static method with a range of registers. The instruction specifies the first register and the number of registers to be passed to the method. 7703 3A00 1300 – invoke-static/range {v19..21},java.lang.Integer.parseInt:( Ljava/lang/String;)I // method@0034
Invokes method@3A with 1 parameters (second byte of the instruction=03). The parameter is stored in v19 (5th,6th bytes of the instruction).
78 invoke-interface-range Invokes an interface method with a range of registers. The instruction specifies the first register and the number of registers to be passed to the method. 7840 2102 0100 invoke-interface {v1..v4}, mwfw.IReceivingProtocolAdapter.receivePackage:(
ILjava/lang/String;Ljava/io/InputStream;)Z // method@0221
Invokes method@221 interface method using parameters in v1..v4.
79 unused_79
7A unused_7A
7B neg-int vx,vy Calculates vx=-vy. 7B01 – neg-int v1,v0
Calculates -v0 and stores the result in v1.
7C not-int vx,vy
7D neg-long vx,vy Calculates vx,vx+1=-(vy,vy+1) 7D02 – neg-long v2,v0
Calculates -(v0,v1) and stores the result into (v2,v3)
7E not-long vx,vy
7F neg-float vx,vy Calculates vx=-vy 7F01 – neg-float v1,v0
Calculates -v0 and stores the result into v1.
80 neg-double vx,vy Calculates vx,vx+1=-(vy,vy+1) 8002 – neg-double v2,v0
Calculates -(v0,v1) and stores the result into (v2,v3)
81 int-to-long vx, vy Converts the integer in vy into a long in vx,vx+1. 8106 – int-to-long v6, v0
Converts an integer in v0 into a long in v6,v7.
82 int-to-float vx, vy Converts the integer in vx into a float in vx. 8206 – int-to-float v6, v0
Converts the integer in v0 into a float in v6.
83 int-to-double vx, vy Converts the integer in vy into the double in vx,vx+1. 8306 – int-to-double v6, v0
Converts the integer in v0 into a double in v6,v7
84 long-to-int vx,vy Converts the long value in vy,vy+1 into an integer in vx. 8424 – long-to-int v4, v2
Converts the long value in v2,v3 into an integer value in v4.
85 long-to-float vx, vy Converts the long value in vy,vy+1 into a float in vx. 8510 – long-to-float v0, v1
Convcerts the long value in v1,v2 into a float value in v0.
86 long-to-double vx, vy Converts the long value in vy,vy+1 into a double value in vx,vx+1. 8610 – long-to-double v0, v1
Converts the long value in v1,v2 into a double value in v0,v1.
87 float-to-int vx, vy Converts the float value in vy into an integer value in vx. 8730 – float-to-int v0, v3
Converts the float value in v3 into an integer value in v0.
88 float-to-long vx,vy Converts the float value in vy into a long value in vx. 8830 – float-to-long v0, v3
Converts the float value in v3 into a long value in v0,v1.
89 float-to-double vx, vy Converts the float value in vy into a double value in vx,vx+1. 8930 – float-to-double v0, v3
Converts the float value in v3 into a double value in v0,v1.
8A double-to-int vx, vy Converts the double value in vy,vy+1 into an integer value in vx. 8A40  – double-to-int v0, v4
Converts the double value in v4,v5 into an integer value in v0.
8B double-to-long vx, vy Converts the double value in vy,vy+1 into a long value in vx,vx+1. 8B40 – double-to-long v0, v4
Converts the double value in v4,v5 into a long value in v0,v1.
8C double-to-float vx, vy Converts the double value in vy,vy+1 into a float value in vx. 8C40 – double-to-float v0, v4
Converts the double value in v4,v5 into a float value in v0,v1.
8D int-to-byte vx,vy Converts the int value in vy to a byte value and stores it in vx. 8D00 – int-to-byte v0, v0
Converts the integer in v0 into a byte and puts the byte value into v0.
8E int-to-char vx,vy Converts the int value in vy to a char value and stores it in vx. 8E33  – int-to-char v3, v3
Converts the integer in v3 into a char and puts the char value into v3.
8F int-to-short vx,vy Converts the int value in vy to a short value and stores it in vx. 8F00 – int-to-short v0, v0
Converts the integer in v0 into a short and puts the short value into v3.
90 add-int vx,vy,vz Calculates vy+vz and puts the result into vx. 9000 0203 – add-int v0, v2, v3
Adds v3 to v2 and puts the result into v04.
91 sub-int vx,vy,vz Calculates vy-vz and puts the result into vx. 9100 0203 – sub-int v0, v2, v3
Subtracts v3 from v2 and puts the result into v0.
92 mul-int vx, vy, vz Multiplies vz with wy and puts the result int vx. 9200 0203       – mul-int v0,v2,v3
Multiplies v2 with w3 and puts the result into v0
93 div-int vx,vy,vz Divides vy with vz and puts the result into vx. 9303 0001       – div-int v3, v0, v1
Divides v0 with v1 and puts the result into v3.
94 rem-int vx,vy,vz Calculates vy % vz and puts the result into vx. 9400 0203       – rem-int v0, v2, v3
Calculates v3 % v2 and puts the result into v0.
95 and-int vx, vy, vz Calculates vy AND vz and puts the result into vx. 9503 0001       – and-int v3, v0, v1
Calculates v0 AND v1 and puts the result into v3.
96 or-int vx, vy, vz Calculates vy OR vz and puts the result into vx. 9603 0001       – or-int v3, v0, v1
Calculates v0 OR v1 and puts the result into v3.
97 xor-int vx, vy, vz Calculates vy XOR vz and puts the result into vx. 9703 0001 – xor-int v3, v0, v1
Calculates v0 XOR v1 and puts the result into v3.
98 shl-int vx, vy, vz Shift vy left by the positions specified by vz and store the result into vx. 9802 0001 – shl-int v2, v0, v1
Shift v0 left by the positions specified by v1 and store the result in v2.
99 shr-int vx, vy, vz Shift vy right by the positions specified by vz and store the result into vx. 9902 0001       – shr-int v2, v0, v1
Shift v0 right by the positions specified by v1 and store the result in v2.
9A ushr-int vx, vy, vz Unsigned shift right (>>>) vy by the positions specified by vz and store the result into vx. 9A02 0001 – ushr-int v2, v0, v1
Unsigned shift v0 right by the positions specified by v1 and store the result in v2.
9B add-long vx, vy, vz Adds vy to vz and puts the result into vx1. 9B00 0305 – add-long v0, v3, v5
The long value in v3,v4 is added to the value in v5,v6 and the result is stored in v0,v1.
9C sub-long vx,vy,vz Calculates vy-vz and puts the result into vx1. 9C00 0305 – sub-long v0, v3, v5
Subtracts the long value in v5,v6 from the long value in v3,v4 and puts the result into v0,v1.
9D mul-long vx,vy,vz Calculates vy*vz and puts the result into vx1. 9D00 0305 – mul-long v0, v3, v5
Multiplies the long value in v5,v6 with the long value in v3,v4 and puts the result into v0,v1.
9E div-long vx, vy, vz Calculates vy/vz and puts the result into vx1. 9E06 0002 – div-long v6, v0, v2
Divides the long value in v0,v1 with the long value in v2,v3 and pust the result into v6,v7.
9F rem-long vx,vy,vz Calculates vy % vz and puts the result into vx1. 9F06 0002 – rem-long v6, v0, v2
Calculates v0,v1 %  v2,v3 and puts the result into v6,v7.
A0 and-long vx, vy, vz Calculates the vy AND vz and puts the result into vx1. A006 0002 – and-long v6, v0, v2
Calculates v0,v1 AND v2,v3 and puts the result into v6,v7.
A1 or-long vx, vy, vz Calculates the vy OR vz and puts the result into vx1. A106 0002 – or-long v6, v0, v2
Calculates v0,v1 OR v2,v3 and puts the result into v6,v7.
A2 xor-long vx, vy, vz Calculates the vy XOR vz and puts the result into vx1. A206 0002 – xor-long v6, v0, v2
Calculates v0,v1 XOR v2,v3 and puts the result into v6,v7.
A3 shl-long vx, vy, vz Shifts left vy by vz positions and stores the result in vx1. A302 0004 – shl-long v2, v0, v4
Shift v0,v1 by postions specified by v4 and puts the result into v2,v3.
A4 shr-long vx,vy,vz Shifts right vy by vz positions and stores the result in vx1. A402 0004 – shr-long v2, v0, v4
Shift v0,v1 by postions specified by v4 and puts the result into v2,v3.
A5 ushr-long vx, vy, vz Unsigned shifts right vy by vz positions and stores the result in vx1. A502 0004 – ushr-long v2, v0, v4
Unsigned shift v0,v1 by postions specified by v4 and puts the result into v2,v3.
A6 add-float vx,vy,vz Adds vy to vz and puts the result into vx. A600 0203 – add-float v0, v2, v3
Adds the floating point numbers in v2 and v3 and puts the result into v0.
A7 sub-float vx,vy,vz Calculates vy-vz and puts the result into vx. A700 0203 – sub-float v0, v2, v3
Calculates v2-v3 and puts the result into v0.
A8 mul-float vx, vy, vz Multiplies vy with vz and puts the result into vx. A803 0001 – mul-float v3, v0, v1
Multiplies v0 with v1 and puts the result into v3.
A9 div-float vx, vy, vz Calculates vy/vz and puts the result into vx. A903 0001 – div-float v3, v0, v1
Divides v0 with v1 and puts the result into v3.
AA rem-float vx,vy,vz Calculates vy % vz and puts the result into vx. AA03 0001 – rem-float v3, v0, v1
Calculates v0 %  v1 and puts the result into v3.
AB add-double vx,vy,vz Adds vy to vz and puts the result into vx1. AB00 0305 – add-double v0, v3, v5
Adds the double value in v5,v6 registers to the double value in v3,v4 registers and places the result  in v0,v1 registers.
AC sub-double vx,vy,vz Calculates vy-vz and puts the result into vx1. AC00 0305 – sub-double v0, v3, v5
Subtracts the value in v5,v6 from the value in v3,v4 and puts the result into v0,v1.
AD mul-double vx, vy, vz Multiplies vy with vz and puts the result into vx1. AD06 0002 – mul-double v6, v0, v2
Multiplies the double value in v0,v1 with the double value in v2,v3 and puts the result into v6,v7.
AE div-double vx, vy, vz Calculates vy/vz and puts the result into vx1. AE06 0002 – div-double v6, v0, v2
Divides the double value in v0,v1 with the double value in v2,v3 and puts the result into v6,v7.
AF rem-double vx,vy,vz Calculates vy % vz and puts the result into vx1. AF06 0002 – rem-double v6, v0, v2
Calculates v0,v1 % v2,v3 and puts the result into v6,v7.
B0 add-int/2addr vx,vy Adds vy to vx. B010 – add-int/2addr v0,v1
Adds v1 to v0.
B1 sub-int/2addr vx,vy Calculates vx-vy and puts the result into vx. B140 – sub-int/2addr v0, v4
Subtracts v4 from v0 and puts the result into v0.
B2 mul-int/2addr vx,vy Multiplies vx with vy. B210 – mul-int/2addr v0, v1
Multiples v0 with v1 and puts the result into v0.
B3 div-int/2addr vx,vy Divides vx with vy and puts the result into vx. B310 – div-int/2addr v0, v1
Divides v0 with v1 and puts the result into v0.
B4 rem-int/2addr vx,vy Calculates vx % vy and puts the result into vx B410 – rem-int/2addr v0, v1
Calculates v0 % v1 and puts the result into v0.
B5 and-int/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx AND vy and puts the result into vx. B510 – and-int/2addr v0, v1
Calculates v0 AND v1 and puts the result into v0.
B6 or-int/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx OR vy and puts the result into vx. B610 – or-int/2addr v0, v1
Calculates v0 OR v1 and puts the result into v0.
B7 xor-int/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx XOR vy and puts the result into vx. B710  – xor-int/2addr v0, v1
Calculates v0 XOR v1 and puts the result into v0.
B8 shl-int/2addr vx, vy Shifts vx left by vy positions. B810 – shl-int/2addr v0, v1
Shift v0 left by v1 positions.
B9 shr-int/2addr vx, vy Shifts vx right by vy positions. B910 – shr-int/2addr v0, v1
Shift v0 right by v1 positions.
BA ushr-int/2addr vx, vy Unsigned shift right (>>>) vx by the positions specified by vy. BA10 – ushr-int/2addr v0, v1
Unsigned shift v0 by the positions specified by v1.
BB add-long/2addr vx,vy Adds vy to vx1. BB20 – add-long/2addr v0, v2
Adds the long value in v2,v3 registers to the long value in v0,v1 registers.
BC sub-long/2addr vx,vy Calculates vx-vy and puts the result into vx1. BC70 – sub-long/2addr v0, v7
Subtracts the long value in v7,v8 from the long value in v0,v1 and puts the result into v0,v1.
BD mul-long/2addr vx,vy Calculates vx*vy and puts the result into vx1. BD70 – mul-long/2addr v0, v7
Multiplies the long value in v7,v8 with the long value in v0,v1 and puts the result into v0,v1.
BE div-long/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx/vy and puts the result into vx1. BE20 – div-long/2addr v0, v2
Divides the long value in v0,v1 with the long value in v2,v3 and puts the result into v0,v1
BF rem-long/2addr vx,vy Calculates vx % vy and puts the result into vx1. BF20 – rem-long/2addr v0, v2
Calculates v0,v1 % v2,v3 and puts the result into v0,v1
C0 and-long/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx AND vy and puts the result into vx1. C020 – and-long/2addr v0, v2
Calculates v0,v1 OR v2,v3 and puts the result into v0,v1.
C1 or-long/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx OR vy and puts the result into vx1. C120  – or-long/2addr v0, v2
Calculates v0,v1 OR v2,v3 and puts the result into v0,v1.
C2 xor-long/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx XOR vy and puts the result into vx1. C220 – xor-long/2addr v0, v2
Calculates v0,v1 XOR v2,v3 and puts the result into v0,v1.
C3 shl-long/2addr vx, vy Shifts left the value in vx,vx+1 by the positions specified by vy and stores the result in vx,vx+1. C320 – shl-long/2addr v0, v2
Shifts left v0,v1 by the positions specified by v2.
C4 shr-long/2addr vx, vy Shifts right the value in vx,vx+1 by the positions specified by vy and stores the result in vx,vx+1. C420 – shr-long/2addr v0, v2
Shifts right v0,v1 by the positions specified by v2.
C5 ushr-long/2addr vx, vy Unsigned shifts right the value in vx,vx+1 by the positions specified by vy and stores the result in vx,vx+1. C520 – ushr-long/2addr v0, v2
Unsigned shifts right v0,v1 by the positions specified by v2.
C6 add-float/2addr vx,vy Adds vy to vx. C640 – add-float/2addr v0,v4
Adds v4 to v0.
C7 sub-float/2addr vx,vy Calculates vx-vy and stores the result in vx. C740 – sub-float/2addr v0,v4
Adds v4 to v0.
C8 mul-float/2addr vx, vy Multiplies vx with vy. C810 – mul-float/2addr v0, v1
Multiplies v0 with v1.
C9 div-float/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx/vy and puts the result into vx. C910 – div-float/2addr v0, v1
Divides v0 with v1 and puts the result into v0.
CA rem-float/2addr vx,vy Calculates vx/vy and puts the result into vx. CA10 – rem-float/2addr v0, v1
Calculates v0 % v1 and puts the result into v0.
CB add-double/2addr vx, vy Adds vy to vx1. CB70 – add-double/2addr v0, v7
Adds v7 to v0.
CC sub-double/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx-vy and puts the result into vx1. CC70 – sub-double/2addr v0, v7
Subtracts the value in v7,v8 from the value in v0,v1 and puts the result into v0,v1.
CD mul-double/2addr vx, vy Multiplies vx with vy1. CD20 – mul-double/2addr v0, v2
Multiplies the double value in v0,v1 with the double value in v2,v3 and puts the result into v0,v1.
CE div-double/2addr vx, vy Calculates vx/vy and puts the result into vx1. CE20 – div-double/2addr v0, v2
Divides the double value in v0,v1 with the double value in v2,v3 and puts the value into v0,v1.
CF rem-double/2addr vx,vy Calculates vx % vy and puts the result into vx1. CF20 – rem-double/2addr v0, v2
Calculates  v0,v1 %  v2,v3 and puts the value into v0,v1.
D0 add-int/lit16 vx,vy,lit16 Adds vy to lit16 and stores the result into vx. D001 D204 – add-int/lit16 v1, v0, #int 1234 // #04d2
Adds v0 to literal 1234 and stores the result into v1.
D1 sub-int/lit16 vx,vy,lit16 Calculates vy – lit16 and stores the result into vx. D101 D204 – sub-int/lit16 v1, v0, #int 1234 // #04d2
Calculates v0 – literal 1234 and stores the result into v1.
D2 mul-int/lit16 vx,vy,lit16 Calculates vy * lit16 and stores the result into vx. D201 D204 – mul-int/lit16 v1, v0, #int 1234 // #04d2
Calculates v0 * literal 1234 and stores the result into v1.
D3 div-int/lit16 vx,vy,lit16 Calculates vy / lit16 and stores the result into vx. D301 D204 – div-int/lit16 v1, v0, #int 1234 // #04d2
Calculates v0 / literal 1234 and stores the result into v1.
D4 rem-int/lit16 vx,vy,lit16 Calculates vy % lit16 and stores the result into vx. D401 D204 – rem-int/lit16 v1, v0, #int 1234 // #04d2
Calculates v0 % literal 1234 and stores the result into v1.
D5 and-int/lit16 vx,vy,lit16 Calculates vy AND lit16 and stores the result into vx. D501 D204 – and-int/lit16 v1, v0, #int 1234 // #04d2
Calculates v0 AND literal 1234 and stores the result into v1.
D6 or-int/lit16 vx,vy,lit16 Calculates vy OR lit16 and stores the result into vx. D601 D204 – or-int/lit16 v1, v0, #int 1234 // #04d2
Calculates v0 OR literal 1234 and stores the result into v1.
D7 xor-int/lit16 vx,vy,lit16 Calculates vy XOR lit16 and stores the result into vx. D701 D204 – xor-int/lit16 v1, v0, #int 1234 // #04d2
Calculates v0 XOR literal 1234 and stores the result into v1.
D8 add-int/lit8 vx,vy,lit8 Adds vy to lit8 and stores the result into vx. D800 0201 – add-int/lit8 v0,v2, #int1
Adds literal 1 to v2 and stores the result into v0.
D9 sub-int/lit8 vx,vy,lit8 Calculates vy-lit8 and stores the result into vx. D900 0201 – sub-int/lit8 v0,v2, #int1
Calculates v2-1 and stores the result into v0.
DA mul-int/lit-8 vx,vy,lit8 Multiplies vy with lit8 8-bit literal constant and puts the result into vx. DA00 0002 – mul-int/lit8 v0,v0, #int2
Multiplies v0 with literal 2 and puts the result into v0.
DB div-int/lit8 vx,vy,lit8 Calculates vy/lit8 and stores the result into vx. DB00 0203 – mul-int/lit8 v0,v2, #int3
Calculates v2/3 and stores the result into v0.
DC rem-int/lit8 vx,vy,lit8 Calculates vy % lit8 and stores the result into vx. DC00 0203 – rem-int/lit8 v0,v2, #int3
Calculates v2 % 3 and stores the result into v0.
DD and-int/lit8 vx,vy,lit8 Calculates vy AND lit8 and stores the result into vx. DD00 0203 – and-int/lit8 v0,v2, #int3
Calculates v2 AND 3 and stores the result into v0.
DE or-int/lit8 vx, vy, lit8 Calculates vy OR lit8 and puts the result into vx. DE00 0203 – or-int/lit8 v0, v2, #int 3
Calculates v2 OR literal 3 and puts the result into v0.
DF xor-int/lit8 vx, vy, lit8 Calculates vy XOR lit8 and puts the result into vx. DF00 0203     |  0008: xor-int/lit8 v0, v2, #int 3
Calculates v2 XOR literal 3 and puts the result into v0.
E0 shl-int/lit8 vx, vy, lit8 Shift v0 left by the bit positions specified by the literal constant and put the result into vx. E001 0001 – shl-int/lit8 v1, v0, #int 1
Shift v0 left by 1 position and put the result into v1.
E1 shr-int/lit8 vx, vy, lit8 Shift v0 right by the bit positions specified by the literal constant and put the result into vx. E101 0001 – shr-int/lit8 v1, v0, #int 1
Shift v0 right by 1 position and put the result into v1.
E2 ushr-int/lit8 vx, vy, lit8 Unsigned right shift of v0 (>>>) by the bit positions specified by the literal constant and put the result into vx. E201 0001 – ushr-int/lit8 v1, v0, #int 1
Unsigned shift v0 right by 1 position and put the result into v1.
E3 unused_E3
E4 unused_E4
E5 unused_E5
E6 unused_E6
E7 unused_E7
E8 unused_E8
E9 unused_E9
EA unused_EA
EB unused_EB
EC unused_EC
ED unused_ED
EE execute-inline {parameters},inline ID Executes the inline method identified by inline ID6. EE20 0300 0100 – execute-inline {v1, v0}, inline #0003
Executes inline method #3 using v1 as “this” and passing one parameter in v0.
EF unused_EF
F0 invoke-direct-empty Stands as a placeholder for pruned empty methods like Object.<init>. This acts as nop during normal execution6. F010 F608 0000 – invoke-direct-empty {v0}, Ljava/lang/Object;.<init>:()V // method@08f6
Replacement for the empty method java/lang/Object;<init>.
F1 unused_F1
F2 iget-quick vx,vy,offset Gets the value stored at offset in vy instance’s data area to vx6. F221 1000 – iget-quick v1, v2, [obj+0010]
Gets the value at offset 0CH of the instance pointed by v2 and stores the object reference in v1.
F3 iget-wide-quick vx,vy,offset Gets the object reference value stored at offset in vy instance’s data area to vx,vx+16. F364 3001 – iget-wide-quick v4, v6, [obj+0130]
Gets the value at offset 130H of the instance pointed by v6 and stores the object reference in v4,v5.
F4 iget-object-quick vx,vy,offset Gets the object reference value stored at offset in vy instance’s data area to vx6. F431 0C00 – iget-object-quick v1, v3, [obj+000c]
Gets the object reference value at offset 0CH of the instance pointed by v3 and stores the object reference in v1.
F5 iput-quick vx,vy,offset Puts the value stored in vx to offset in vy instance’s data area6. F521 1000  – iput-quick v1, v2, [obj+0010]
Puts the object reference value in v1 to offset 10H of the instance pointed by v2.
F6 iput-wide-quick vx,vy,offset Puts the value stored in vx,vx+1 to offset in vy instance’s data area6. F652 7001 – iput-wide-quick v2, v5, [obj+0170]
Puts the value in v2,v3 to offset 170H of the instance pointed by v5.
F7 iput-object-quick vx,vy,offset Puts the object reference value stored in vx to offset in vy instance’s data area to vx6. F701 4C00 – iput-object-quick v1, v0, [obj+004c]
Puts the object reference value in v1 to offset 0CH of the instance pointed by v3.
F8 invoke-virtual-quick {parameters},vtable offset Invokes a virtual method using the vtable of the target object6. F820 B800 CF00 – invoke-virtual-quick {v15, v12}, vtable #00b8
Invokes a virtual method. The target object instance is pointed by v15 and vtable entry #B8 points to the method to be called. v12 is a parameter to the method call.
F9 invoke-virtual-quick/range {parameter range},vtable offset Invokes a virtual method using the vtable of the target object6 F906             1800 0000       – invoke-virtual-quick/range {v0..v5},vtable #0018
Invokes a method using the vtable of the instance pointed by v0. v1..v5 registers are parameters to the method call.
FA invoke-super-quick {parameters},vtable offset Invokes a virtual method in the target object’s immediate parent class using the vtable of that parent class6. FA40 8100 3254  – invoke-super-quick {v2, v3, v4, v5}, vtable #0081
Invokes a method using the vtable of the immediate parent class of instance pointed by v2. v3, v4 and v5 registers are parameters to the method call.
FB invoke-super-quick/range {register range},vtable offset Invokes a virtual method in the target object’s immediate parent class using the vtable of that parent class6. F906 1B00 0000 – invoke-super-quick/range {v0..v5}, vtable #001b
Invokes a method using the vtable of the immediate parent class of instance pointed by v0. v1..v5 registers are parameters to the method call.
FC unused_FC
FD unused_FD
FE unused_FE
FF unused_FF
  1. Note that double and long values occupy two registers (e.g. the value addressed by vy is located in vy and vy+1 registers)
  2. The offset can be positive or negative and it is calculated from the offset of the starting byte of the instruction. The offset is always interpreted in words (2 bytes per 1 offset value increment/decrement). Negative offset is stored in two’s complement format. The current position is the offset of the starting byte of the instruction.
  3. Compare operations returrn positive value if the first operand is greater than the second operand, 0 if they are equal and negative value if the first operand is smaller than the second operand.
  4. Not seen in the wild, interpolated from Dalvik bytecode list.
  5. The invocation parameter list encoding is somewhat weird. Starting if parameter number > 4 and parameter number % 4 == 1, the 5th (9th, etc.) parameter is encoded on the 4 lowest bit of the byte immediately following the instruction. Curiously, this encoding is not used in case of 1 parameter, in this case an entire 16 bit word is added after the method index of which only 4 bit is used to encode the single parameter while the lowest 4 bit of the byte following the instruction byte is left unused.
  6. This is an unsafe instruction and occurs only in ODEX files.