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無線網路WPA安全機制剖析

WEP(Wired Equivalent Private)WEP KeyRC4 64 bits128 bits KeyWEP KeyWEP KeyIV24 bitsIV 40 bits 104 bitsKey IVIV 40 bits 104 bitsKeyWEP KeyWEP Key IETF IEEE 802.1X RADIUS Usage Guidelines ” 802.1x RadiusAAAWEP KeyAccess PointWEP KeyWEP Key802.1xEAPOL-KeyWEP KeyEAPOL-KeyWEP KeyWEP KeyWEP Key802.1xEAPOL-KeyWEP KeyHandshakingWEP KeyAccess PointWEP KeyWEP KeyEAPOL-KeyWEP Key IEEE 802.11iIEEE 802.11iWIFI WIFI Protected Access IEEE 802.11i Draft 802.11iTKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) AESTKIPWPA 1.x (WPA/SSN) TKIP802.11RC4KeyWEP24-bitIVTKIP48-bit IVIV WPA802.1xEAPWPA TKIPWEPWPAWPAAES WPA TKIPWEPWEP KeyWPA TKIPKeyTKIP TKIP WPA 1.x TKIP WEP (1)48-bitsIV (2)TKIP Per-Packet KeyePacketKey (3)MIC(Message Integrity Code)<Michael>e ()WEPRC424-bitsIV 40-bits 104-bitsWEP Key24-bitsIV 64-bits 128-bitsRC4Key (), WEP RC4 ()TKIPRC4KeyTKIP128-bits WEP Key KeyWEP KeyWEP Key IV RC4 KeyTKIPTKIP KeyIV128 bitsIV128 bits Key 48 bits IV(32 bits16 bits)Phase 1 Phase 2Key ()TKIP Per-Packet Key()WPA MIC(Message Integrity Code) MICCRC () 802.11 WPA MICMichael64 bitsMICMichaelMIC ()TKIP ()TKIP ()TKIP ()TKIP WPARC4Key WPA WPAAccess Point (1) WEP(64 and 128 bits) (2) TKIP (3) 802.1x + EAP Authentication Capability WPA Access PointWEP TKIP Access PointWPAAccess PointBeacon FrameProbe ResponseFrameInformation ElementInformation ElementOUIAccess PointAccess Point Access Point Association Request Access Point Association Request FrameInformation ElementOUI Access Point ()Access PointBeacon Probe Response FrameInformation ElementSupplicantAccess PointAccess RequestInformation ElementAccess PointSupplicant () Information Element Frame WPA Information ElementOUI Encryption Type OUI Setting NONE 0x000x500xf20x00 WEP 64bits 0x000x500xf20x01 TKIP 0x000x500xf20x02 AESCCMP 0x000x500xf20x03 AESWRAP 0x000x500xf20x04 WEP 128bits 0x000x500xf20x05 WPA (Coordination of Authentication Process)Key 802.1xKeyAccess Point802.xEAPOL-KeyWEP KeyEAPOL-KeyAccess PointWEP Key() ()EAPOL-Key Procedure EAPAccess PointEAPOL-EAP SuccessSession Key(WEP Key)Group Key(WEP Key)EAPOL Access PointSession KeySession KeyGroup Key ()EAPOLMAC LayerTCPEAPOLWEP Key ()EAPOLEAP WIFI Protected AccessKeyKeyWPAKey (1) Unicast Key eKey (2) Group Key eAccess PointKey Unicast Key 4-way Handshake IEEE 802.11iUnicast KeyHandshakeWPA() ()4-way Unicast key handshake Access PointKeyAccess Point32 bytes ANonce32 bytes SNonceAccess PointANonce32-bytes PMK(Unicast Master Key)KeyEAPOL-KeyMICKey EAPOL-KeyAccess PointSNonceMICAccess PointMIC WPA-RadiusUnicast KeyPMKEAPAccess Point Radius Server MS-MPPE-Recv-Key(32 bytes)WEP-Pre-Shared KeyPMK Key32 bytes Pre-Shared Key ANonceSNonce512 bitsKey512 bits Key TKIP Key Hierarchy Pair-wise keys 0-127 EAPOL-Key MIC Key 128-255 EAPOL-Key Encrypt Key 256-383 TKIP 128 bits based Key 384-511 64 bits TX MIC Key 64 bits RX MIC Key ()Unicast 4-way HandshakeKey Key ()PTK Key Unicast KeyGroup Key Group Key 2-way Handshake Group Key2Handshake() ()2-way Group key handshake ()Group 2-way Handshake256 bits Group KeyHandshakingGroup Key EAPOL-KeyKeyUnicast Key 128-bits Encrypt Key (128-255 bits) ()GTK Key ()802.1x StandardEAPOL-Key EAPOL-KeyHandshaking(ACK Field)802.1x EAPOL-Key ()802.1xEAPOL-Key Frame ()IEEE 802.11i Draft EAPOL-Key 802.1xEAPOL-Key ()802.11iEAPOL-Key Frame WPA EAPOL-KeyKey Information(16-bits)EAPOL-KeyUnicast or Group KeyMICEAPOL-KeyWPAKey() ()Key Information ()Key Information ()Key Information Bit Range Description 0-2 Key descriptor version type 3 Key type (1= Unicast key 0 = Group key) 4-5 Key Index (0 for Unicast key1-3 for Group Key) 6 Install Unicast Key e 1 = install 0 = Not Group Key e1 = install for TX and RX 0 = install for RX 7 ACK Set in messages from the Authenticator if an EAPOL-Key message is required in response to this message 8 MIC Set if a MIC is in this EAPOL-Key message and it is clear if this message contains no MIC 9 Secure Set once the initial key exchange is complete 10 Error Supplicant sets this bit to report that a MIC failure occurred 11 Request Supplicant sets this bit to request that the Authenticator initiate either a 4-way or group key handshake 12-15 Reserved WPARadius AAAPre-Shared Key WPAWEPWPA WPA-RadiusEAPHLREAP-SIM/AKA 1 IEEE 802.11i Draft 2 WIFI Protected Access Standard 3IEEE 802.1X RADIUS Usage Guidelines(http://www.potaroo.net/ietf/xld-ids/draft-congdon-radius-8021x-29.txt-63145.txt) […]

無線網路安全機制剖析

00 02 2d 1d fa c0 00 06 25 ac 24 3c 88 8e 01 00 00 04 01 00 00 04 01 00 00 00 a0 62 fc b9 a1 2c 8c 57 88 9e 0d b3 e7 1e a3 13 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 d4 60 d5 82 b4 ce 35 59 5a 00 02 2d 1d fa c0eDestination MAC Address 00 06 25 ac 24 3ceSource MAC Address 88 8eePAE Ethernet Type 01eProtocol Version 00 ePacket Type 00 04ePacket Body Length 01eEAP-Packet Code 00eEAP-Identifier 00 04 eEAP-Length 01 eEAP-EAP Type 00 00 00 a0 62 fc b9 a1 2c 8c 57 88 9e 0d b3 e7 1e a3 13 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 d4 60 d5 82 b4 ce 35 59 5aeEAP-Type Data (2) EAPOL-Start(0x01)e EAPOL-Start,12bytesMAC Address,EAPOL0x888E Ethernet Type 00 06 25 ac 24 3c 00 02 2d 1d fa c0 88 8e 01 01 00 00 00 00 06 25 ac 24 3ceDestination MAC Address 00 02 2d 1d fa c0eSource MAC Address 88 8eePAE Ethernet Type 01eProtocol Version 01ePacket Type(0x01EAP-Start) 00 00ePacket Body Length EAPOL-LogOff(0x02)EAPOL, EAPOL-Key(0x03)Key EAPOL-Encapsulated-ASF-Alert(0x04. […]

Providing Seamless Roaming Service for Mobile Host with Multiple Communication Devices

Table 2 Processing overhead introduced by the proposed adaptive communication system Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) IP datagram receiving (without adaptive communication system) 5.509 Mb/sec IP datagram receiving (with adaptive communication system) 5.308 Mb/sec Percentage of receiving overhead (%) 3.65 IP datagram transmission (without adaptive communication system) 8.776 Mb/sec IP datagram transmission (with adaptive communication system) 8.424 Mb/sec Percentage of transmission overhead (%) 4.001 Figure 6 Snapshoot of the active device controller (I) Figure 7 Snapshoot of the active device controller (II) Figure 8 Snapshoot of the active device controller (III) 5. […]